Spontaneous pneumothorax in miliary tuberculosis child: a case report
SHODIKIN, Muhammad Ali
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Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare but fatal complication of miliary tuberculosis. We report a 13-year-old boy presenting with shortness of breath. He was diagnosed with miliary tuberculosis with spontaneous pneumothorax, which showed significant improvement after the insertion of a thoracostomy tube and anti-tuberculosis drug therapy.[Paediatr Indones. 2022;62:364- 6DOI: https://doi.org/10.14238/pi62.5.2022.364-6 ]. Keywords: pneumothorax; miliary tuberculosis; children; case report Miliary tuberculosis is a severe form of tuberculosis arising as a consequence of hematogenous and lymphogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Around 3-7% of all tuberculosis cases have been reported to be miliary.1 The mortality rate of miliary tuberculosis is estimated to be 25%, but may reach 100% if left untreated.2 Patients with miliary tuberculosis classically present with fever, evening rise of temperature for several weeks, anorexia, weight loss, lethargy, and cough. The symptoms can lead to severe complication such as pneumothorax, pleural effusion, respiratory distress syndrome, and acute respiratory failure. Miliary tuberculosis, as a form of advanced tuberculosis in children, is a known cause of secondary pneumothorax one of the main tuberculosis complications.3 We report a case of miliary tuberculosis with spontaneous pneumothorax.
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