Effect of Maternal Periodontal Disease on Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Expression in the Rat Placental Cells
Soesatyo, Marsetyawan HNE
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Background: Periodontal infection caused by Gram-negative anaerobic organisms can act as a potential threat in the feto-placental unit. The placenta forms a barrier against the maternal immune system. This study aimed to analyze the effect of periodontal disease on TNF-α expression in the rat placental cells. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day 14 and 20. The expression of TNF-α in trophoblast cells was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: TNF-α expressions of the control, Pg-BD, Pg-B and Pg-D groups were significantly different (P<0.05) in syncytiotrophoblasts, trophoblastic giant cells and spongiotrophoblasts on GD14, while on GD 20 TNF-α expressions were significantly different only in syncytiotrophoblasts and trophoblastic giant cells on GD 20. Conclusion: The role of TNF-α in the control group is thought to be involved in the early growth of the fetus. A little expression of TNF-α can be beneficial for pregnancy, while increased expression of TNF-α is very adverse. Initial implantation and a successful pregnancy depend on the tight regulation of the TNF-α expression in placental tissue.
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