Factors Influencing Diabetes Self-Care Behavior among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Rural Area, Jember, Indonesia
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Background: Self-care is essential factors that contribute to prevent diabetes complications and improve the quality of life. From the literature review, the factors affect self-care behavior are knowledge, self-efficacy, distress, and family support. The purpose of the study was to examine self-care behaviors and related factors in adult with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: Descriptive analytic study with cross sectional design was performed on adults with T2DM who referred to the Patrang Public Health Center, Jember between January and April 2018. A total of 60 T2DM patients were enrolled in this study by using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through interviews using Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy in Diabetes Scale (SKILLD), Diabetes Self-Management Efficacy Scale (DSMES), Hensarling Diabetes Family Support Scale (HDFSS), Diabetes Distress Scale (DSS) and The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression test with 95% CI. Results: The mean score of self-care behavior in patients was 15.133±4.883, indicating moderate selfcare. The score of self-care behavior showed a statistically significant correlate with score of knowledge of diabetes (r =0.399), self-efficacy (r=0.355), distress (r=-0.532) and family support (r=0.897). The multiple linear regession showed, R Square value=0.852 and Adjusted R Square = 0.841; Annova test, showed F value = 89.753 (p=0.000). The result of the research indicated that self-care behavior affected by knowledge of diabetes, self-efficacy, family support and distress diabetes. Enhancing knowledge of diabetes, self-efficacy, and family support will enhance the self-care behavior, while enhancing of distress will decrease the self-care behavior. Conclusions: These study shows the importance of knowledge, selfefficacy, family support, and distress diabetes in determining self‐care behaviour for adult T2DM and serve as references for future studies of self‐care behaviour in T2DM patients.
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