THE TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES USED IN THE FIRST TWO CHAPTERS OF THE ENGLISH VERSION OF ANDREA HIRATA’S LASKAR PELANGI
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The results show that there are 12 translation techniques used by the translator in translating the data; literal translation, borrowing, amplification, transposition, addition, omission, calque, particularization, adaptation, compensation, and description. Those translation techniques are applied either as single techniques or multiple techniques. Based on the frequency of the translation techniques application in the 200 sentences of the TLT, literal translation and borrowing are the two most dominant techniques used by the translator. Literal translation is used in 133 sentences and borrowing is used in 60 sentences in the data, either as single technique or multiple technique together with the other translation techniques. Based on this finding, it is concluded that the translator tries to maintain the orientation of the SLT in the TLT by rarely doing cultural adaptation or lexical adjustment in the TLT. Besides, this research also finds that translator translates word by word of the SLT into the TLT in order to lead to precise understanding of the readers who are mostly children due to the fact that the text itself is a children literature in which the translator has to consider the ability of the readers to understand the message precisely. Therefore, literal translation and borrowing are chosen in order to produce accurate TLT that requires all of the information in the SLT to be transferred into the TLT. On the other hand, in those 200 sentences of the TLT in this research, the translator also uses other 10 translation techniques that are TLT oriented. This finding shows that the translator also needs to do cultural and lexical adjustments in the TLT in order to make the audience understand the message that the translator wants to transfer to him/her. Furthermore, it is found in the data that not all of the sentences use one translation techniques, most of them use more than one translation techniques or multiple translation techniques. There are 66 sentences that use single translation techniques and 134 sentences that use multiple translation techniques, which are more dominant than single translation techniques. Afterwards, this study also finds that the impact of using those techniques is positive. In using those translation techniques, the translator produces 95% accurate TLTs, 3% less accurate TLTs and only 2% inaccurate TLTs. The causes of the less accurate and the inaccurate TLTs in the data of this research are the additional and omitted messages in the TLTs that makes the TLTs unequal and leads to ambiguity in some cases. Therefore, it is suggested that translator has to be careful in adding or omitting some information from the SLT because it might lead to crucial problem toward the accuracy of the TLT.