The inhibition of malignant epithelial cells in mucosal injury in the oral cavity of strains by pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum linn) through Bcl-2 expression
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Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity is a term used to call malignant neoplasms derived from epithelia. The malignant neoplasms are cells that have changed their structure and function, thus, their number becomes increasing abnormally, invasive, and metastatic. One of factors causing carcinoma is caused by the resistance of malignant cell apoptosis. Bcl - 2 is a proto-oncogene of Bcl family that inhibits the process of cell apoptosis and suppresses Bax protein (pro- apoptotic). The management efforts of cancer diseases, however, still have many obstacles. Thus, the researcher was triggered to explore more herbal plants, namely pomegranate. Pomegranate as a medicinal plant is accessible and cheap. ellagic acid (EA) is a single active compound derived from whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL), which has anti- cancer activity as in vitro, but ellagic acid (EA) is low concentration in plasma, low water solubility, and insoluble in intestinal. These facts prompted the researcher to compare between pomegranate extract, which consists of several active compounds, and that, which only consists of ellagic acid. Thus, this research is expected to know how some active compounds can work synergistically in the whole extract (PGL), so the effect can be more potent. Purpose: The purpose of this research, therefore,is to compare between ellagic acid (EA)with whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL)in reducing the expression of Bcl - 2. Methods: The method used, moreover, was a laboratory experimental research with 32 male mice (Balb/c) in the age of 5 months. Then, those mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: 2 control groups (K0), which was not exposed with benzopirene and also untreated; and K1, which was exposed with benzopirene and also untreated), 2 treatment groups (P1, which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with ellagic acid (EA); and P2, which was exposed with benzopirene and also treated with the whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL). Next, an examination was conducted by using immunohistochemical techniques. Results: The results then showed that the provision of the whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL) could decrease the expression of Bcl-2 higher than that of ellagic acid (EA) in the malignant epithelial cells of the oral mucosa of those mice. Conclusion: In conclusion, it may be concluded that the provision of the whole pomegranate fruit extract (PGL) can kill malignant cells in the oral cavity of mice by increasing apoptosis through decreasing Bcl-2 expression that was higher than the provision of ellagic acid (EA).
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