The Representation of Colonialism in Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book
MARANOV, Bramtara Valda
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This research tries to reveal the discourse of colonialism in the time the novel was written in Rudyard Kipling‘s The Jungle Book (1894). It focuses on analyzing the experiences of the characters that lived in the colonial environment. Those characters are Mowgli and the people of the jungle, Rikki-Tikki-Tavi and Kala Nag. To analyze the discourse of colonialism, I use Stuart Hall‘s representation theory and the discursive approach by Michel Foucault. This research uses qualitative data. The data of this research are divided into two kinds, the primary data and secondary data. The primary data are taken from the narrrations and dialogues from The Jungle Book novel by Rudyard Kipling in 1894 and the secondary data are taken from books, journals, articles, and previous research that have similar objects or topics to support the analysis of the primary data. First, I read The Jungle Book novel by Rudyard Kipling (1894), to find and know about the discourse of colonialism in the text. The second is categorizing the data that I found to make the mapping easier, and then I read similar issues about colonialism in 18-19th century in India. It will support me to concern the contextual condition of colonialism in India in 18-19th century. The third step is analyzing the data using the theory of representation by Stuart Hall and helped with the discursive approach by Michel Foucault with intention of discussing the colonialism discourse practice which is represented in the novel entitled The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. The last, I try to find the critical position of the author, this step is focuses on the position of the author as the member of culture that produces the discourse, whether he is in pro or contra position of colonialism that happened in that time. The critical position of the author will be revealed by relating the discourse of colonialism in India in the text with the contextual background in the time the text written. The result of this research shows that the depiction of colonialism is shown in the form of the elements of the story, such as characterization, setting and experiences of the characters who lived in the colonial environment. Born in Anglo India parents, and in the time when Britain colonized India, the nature of his life affected his works. His life started in colonial environment, especially from colonizer class and become greater after his comeback to India after he finished his study there. In the time the text written, colonialism happened when Britain colonized India and took advantages from the country. Therefore, Rudyard Kipling as the author of the novel positioned himself as a major apologist of colonialism; it can be seen through his literary works, especially The Jungle Book which contains the discourse of colonialism and also from his personal life as a man in colonial environment.
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